## Fundamental Theorem of Linear Algebra

Notation Let \(\mathfrak{B}=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \ldots, \mathbf{v}_n \} \text{ is a basis for } V.\) Define a function \([\cdot]_{\mathfrak{B}}:V \rightarr...

Notation Let \(\mathfrak{B}=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \ldots, \mathbf{v}_n \} \text{ is a basis for } V.\) Define a function \([\cdot]_{\mathfrak{B}}:V \rightarr...

Distribution Function Let $X$ be a random variable on $(\mathbb{R}, \mathcal{B}(\mathbb{R}), \mu)$. The distribution function (cumulative distribution functi...

Measurable function Let $(E, \mathcal{E})$ and $(F, \mathcal{F})$ be measurable spaces where $E,F,$ are sets and $\mathcal{E}$ and $\mathcal{F}$ are $\sigma...

The sample space $\Omega$ is the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment. Points in $\omega \in \Omega$ are outcomes or realizations.

Definition 2.5.1 Let $\{s_n\}$ be a sequence in $\mathbb{R}$. The limit superior of $\{s_n\}$, denoted as $\limsup_{n\to\infty}s_n$, is defined as